What’s Zcash? What can Zcash Do? The Definition of Zero-Knowledge Proof

1years ago (2016-12-20) admin Zcash Column 3586℃

What's Zcash? What can Zcash Do? The Definition of Zero-Knowledge Proof

What is Zcash?

This recently launched cryptocurrency has received attention for its enhanced privacy features. Zooko Wilcox, the project\'s lead developer, explains how these features work and what they mean for policymakers.

Zcash is a cryptocurrency network that launched in October of 2016. Like other cryptocurrency networks (e.g. Bitcoin or Ethereum), Zcash allows anyone with a computer and an Internet connection to send and receive scarce tokens that can be used like cash on the Internet. The software that powers Zcash is directly derived from Bitcoin’s core software, but it has been modified in order to enhance user privacy.

The members of the network who relay, validate, and bundle user transactions into blocks are, like in Bitcoin, commonly called miners. These miners are rewarded for honest participation with transaction fees and newly minted Zcash, and they must solve a difficult math problem (similar but distinct from Bitcoin’s mining algorithm) in order to earn the privilege of participation. As with Bitcoin, anyone can be a miner on the Zcash network, all they need is an Internet connection, a reasonably powerful computer, and the free and open source Zcash software. Zcash is an open blockchain network.

Why launch a new cryptocurrency with enhanced privacy?

Bitcoin has been around for almost a decade, and by now many people have realized that it is not nearly as private or anonymous as many initially thought. That can be a good thing when it comes to catching criminals, but it can also be a bad thing for innocent users. In fact, Bitcoin’s current specifications make it almost impossible for an unsophisticated innocent user to have any privacy.

Here’s a simple example. Most people use bitcoin by sharing a payment address that looks something like this:


Maybe that address belongs to a bartender. To accept bitcoin for cocktails the bartender puts that address on a poster behind the bar in the form of a QR code so it would look something like this (courtesy of Room77 in Berlin):

What's Zcash? What can Zcash Do? The Definition of Zero-Knowledge Proof

Patrons at the bar can take a picture of that code with their smartphone and use a bitcoin wallet app to pay that address for their drinks. Trouble is, anyone can look that address up in the Bitcoin blockchain and see every incoming transaction and the total amount of bitcoin sitting in that address. If we look up that information, then we have at least some idea of how rich the bartender is (good information for a would-be robber), and how successful the bar has been (good information for the competing bar next-door). Also, if we sat next to someone while they took a picture of the payment code with their phone, then we might have a good idea of how rich the customer next to us is as well by identifying the most recent incoming transaction for the bartender’s address and looking up the balance of the sending address, the customer’s address.

This poor privacy can be marginally improved by having your Bitcoin wallet generate a new payment address every time you want to be paid. So the bartender would now show each customer a new and different QR code to pay his or her individual tab. But the basic issue remains. Often those separate balances will be combined to fund an outgoing transaction. Perhaps the bartender wants to pay her rent with bitcoins she has received from patrons, but that single rent transaction is larger than any single payment from a patron. The bartender will need to use several of her receiving addresses to pay the rent, and all those addresses are then combined in a transaction message that ends up in the blockchain. By analyzing these transactions, a stranger who knows one of the bartender’s addresses can create a map of clustered addresses that are used by the bartender. So with clustering analysis, the stranger can still get a pretty good idea of the bartender’s net bitcoin worth, and learn all sorts of things about the bartender, like how much she pays in rent and how often.

To be truly private, a bitcoin user needs to take all kinds of technical precautions: never using the same payment address twice, avoiding recombining payment addresses as inputs for later transactions, sending funds to mixing services that will shuffle bitcoin balances amongst a bunch of other bitcoin users (and hopefully not run off with their money), using Tor or other private Internet services to make it harder to link geographic data from IP addresses to transaction messages; the list goes on. These are difficult steps for a technologically unsophisticated user to take, and even a sophisticated user might not take these steps if they aren’t doing anything criminal and feel that the benefits of privacy simply aren’t worth the costs.

As a result, Bitcoin as currently specified creates a perverse outcome: sophisticated criminals might be able to squeeze some anonymity out of the system, but your average innocent user gets no privacy whatsoever.

How is Zcash more private?

The Zcash network

uses modified Bitcoin software to allow users a choice whenever they transact. You can get paid at a normal address that works transparently just like a Bitcoin address (we call this a transparent address, or “t-addr”) or you can use a private payment address (we call this a shielded address, or “z-addr”). If two people transact with shielded addresses, the Zcash blockchain will not record the details of that transaction publicly. All of those details are things that otherwise would be used to identify them: things like the amount of Zcash just sent and received and the addresses of the payor or payee. With Zcash shielded addresses, all of that information is encrypted or kept secret from the public.

Of course, that raises an important question. How do the users of the Zcash network know that no new money was created in a private transaction? How do we know that the sender did not just counterfeit new Zcash instead of sending you her existing balances? In Bitcoin you know that there has been no counterfeiting because the blockchain has an indelible record of all transactions that is complete with details like amount sent, sender address, and recipient address. That blockchain record goes all the way back to the beginning of the network, and if you sum up all the transactions you will get a number of Bitcoin in circulation that is only the amount of bitcoins legitimately mined so far mined. This gives us confidence that bitcoins are only being created according to the rules of the software; no fishy counterfeiting is taking place. So how can we be sure that there is no counterfeiting in Zcash if we cannot see all of the individual transaction records on the blockchain? This is where the new Zcash technology comes in.

Zcash uses cutting edge math and science to create a privacy protecting blockchain. Specifically, it uses cryptographic functions that are called zk-SNARKs. That stands for Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-interactive Arguments of Knowledge. It\'s a mouthful (computer scientists aren’t always the best at naming things), but what it means is this: with a zk-SNARK, a computer or network of computers can take some otherwise encrypted and unreadable data and prove certain limited facts are true about that data without revealing anything else about that data. So in the case of payments made to and from a shielded Zcash address, using a zk-SNARK built into the protocol software, the network can prove to any user that, on-net, all outgoing transactions equal all incoming transactions (i.e. no new money was created), but the zk-SNARK function proves it without revealing the specifics of those individual transactions, all the data that would be used to compromise your privacy.

Can regulated institutions use Zcash?

Financial institutions are legally required to comply with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws and regulations. Can these institutions use a payment system and currency that leaves no record of individual transactions? Absolutely! That system is called cash and just about every financial institution in the world uses it. Cash transactions are still much more opaque than any cryptocurrency transaction, even a Zcash transaction from a shielded address.

If I go into a bank and hand the teller $1,000 worth of cash, the bank would have less information about that transaction—where I got the money in the first place—than if I sent them $1,000 worth of Zcash from a shielded address. At least with Zcash they know for sure that the money isn’t counterfeit. Just as financial institutions can accept and hold your cash without running afoul of the regulations, they can accept and hold Zcash as long as they continue to keep their own internal records as they are required to do by law.

The responsibility to comply with things like the Bank Secrecy Act (a financial surveillance law in the U.S.) is a responsibility borne by the institution and not by the technology behind the medium of exchange or the developers of that technology. We don’t ask the Federal Reserve to record all cash transactions, we ask that individual banks or money services businesses keep their own records, do their own Know-Your-Customer diligence, and reports things that look suspicious.

As we’ll see in the next section, financial institutions can implement compliance with Zcash, potentially even better than they can do with Bitcoin, because they can give regulators or (duly authorized, warrant-bearing) law enforcement privileged access to sensitive data in the blockchain. This approach to compliance is also arguably better than compliance using traditional pre-blockchain banking.

Does Zcash make regulation more difficult?

Zcash’s shielded addresses may make it more difficult for regulators and law enforcement to investigate using public data from the blockchain, but Zcash also has some built-in features that can help simplify regulatory compliance without compromising the privacy of innocent users. Two relevant technical concepts are view keys and memos.

Every shielded address comes with what we call a view key that is generated for the holder of the address. She can choose to share this view key with anyone else in the world. With that view key a person can get the details about the particular transactions sent from that address; they can see the recipient addresses and the amounts sent. Not only can they see these details, they can prove them with the certainty of a blockchain data structure.

(Note: at the time of this writing, the current version of Zcash — v1.0.3 — does not have complete support for users to retrieve and use view keys, even though they are effectively already included in the protocol.)

Accordingly, whenever the law demands transparency and whenever proper legal process is followed to obtain that transparency, a user or regulated firm can easily oblige by sharing the view key that un-blinds private transactions with the proper authorities. This is, in many ways, superior to the current state of affairs with Bitcoin where both law enforcement and the general public can see a wealth of private information about your Bitcoin addresses. It’s also better than the current state of affairs with pre-blockchain banking transactions because the data being shared can be verified by an open network of computers, rather than law enforcement needing to take the regulated party or the individual being questioned at their word.

Zcash transactions also have a memo field that can be used to send additional data about the transaction viewable only to the recipient. This memo could carry data between financial institutions wherever they are required by law to send that data along (e.g. the “travel rule” requirement in the Bank Secrecy Act).

Why is financial privacy technology important?

Ultimately we believe that personal privacy is necessary for core human values like dignity, intimacy, and ethics. Without privacy, people will often abstain from doing anything that is legal but also unpopular or politically incorrect. This chills free expression and leaves us with a less diverse and less resilient community. Leaked private financial data can also be used by businesses to discriminate against vulnerable populations, or people with a lot to lose. Data analytics technology is advancing rapidly and without financial privacy we run the risk of being dealt with or identified in business or even personal contexts as merely an amalgam of facts and figures, rather than as unique individuals with dignity.

Financial privacy is also essential in an institutional context. As large financial institutions like banks have begun investigating blockchain technology to streamline their business processes, one of the chief impediments has been the transparency inherent in a Bitcoin-like blockchain. When you trade and how much you trade is proprietary information that an institution like an investment bank would likely rather not share with their competitors. The zk-SNARK technology pioneered for Zcash might allow big firms to use blockchains as cost-saving infrastructure without forcing them to share that proprietary information.

At heart this is the core goal of Zcash, to build an open and trustworthy financial system that doesn’t put our privacy and freedom at risk.


Zooko Wilcox is Founder and CEO of the Zcash Electric Coin Company. He has more than 20 years of experience in open, decentralized systems, cryptography and information security, and startups. He is recognized for his work on DigiCash, Mojo Nation, ZRTP, “Zooko\'s Triangle”, Tahoe-LAFS, BLAKE2, and SPHINCS.


Follow Us Here Thanks !

Recommended Articles :

64 comment

  1. avatar

    Excellent site you have got here.. It’s hard to find excellent writing
    like yours these days. I seriously appreciate individuals like you!
    Take care!!

    https://www.viagrasansordonnancefr.com/viagra-sans-ordonnance-pas-cher/ at2017-03-31 05:54 Comment
  2. avatar

    you have a great blog here! would you like to make some invite posts on my blog?

    corburterilio at2017-04-01 00:04 Comment
  3. avatar

    Has your snoring prevented you from getting good sleep for years? If you have not seen a doctor about this issue, you might be experiencing a dangerous and serious form of snoring associated with sleep apnea. If this rings true, then try not worry!. The article below can help.

    Strengthen your throat and jaw with some basic exercises. Developing these muscles should reduce the symptoms of sleep apnea. You can exercise your throat and jaw by simply pulling your tongue or practicing some very simple breathing exercises. The goal is to train you to breathe differently and hopefully make your sleep apnea disappear.

    Consider doing a few very specific exercises before going to bed each night, to alleviate some of your sleep apnea symptoms. Exercising throat and tongue muscles has been proven in scientific studies to reduce snoring, improve breathing and lessen the more profound effects of sleep apnea when done according to doctor’s orders.

    If you have tried a number of less drastic sleep apnea treatment options, you might want to consider discussing surgical treatment options for the condition with your primary care physician. Sleep apnea treatment surgery often involves increasing the diameter of your airway in an effort to reduce the number of apnea episodes that you experience.

    If you are taking a great deal of medicines on a regular basis, sit with your doctor and discuss how they can be reduced. Side effects from prescription medication can be making your sleep apnea worse. Keep a dialog open with your doctor and make sure he is up to date on all your symptoms.

    If you think that you may have sleep apnea, set up a video of yourself as you sleep. Just be sure that the video recorder has sound capability. When you wake up, look at the video, and if it seems like something other than snoring is going on, it may be time to go to the doctor.

    Do not let sleep apnea ruin your relationship. If your partner has difficulties sleeping next to you because of your snoring or other symptoms linked to sleep apnea, communicate about the problem. be understanding and consider sleeping apart or getting a CPAP machine to reduce your snoring and other symptoms.

    Avoid any type of drugs or alcohol if you are experiencing any type of sleep apnea. Drugs and alcohol will slow down your respiratory system, and that is known to be one of the causes of sleep apnea. If you are struggling with this issue, try to get some professional help to overcome these addictions.

    If simple changes in your lifestyle, such as regular sleep hours and losing weight, have not eliminated your sleep apnea episodes, it is time to consult with a sleep specialist. The specific causes of your sleep apnea can be evaluated, and an individual treatment plan can be designed for you.

    Sleep apnea can cause many problems beyond just the inability to get a good night’s sleep. If you let your condition go untreated, it may get worse over time. Getting enough sleep is crucial to your overall level of health, so start using the tips you have read in this article right away to find relief.


    Jamesarral at2017-04-02 23:24 Comment
  4. avatar

    Hello! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be okay.

    I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.

    manicure at2017-04-03 10:45 Comment
  5. avatar

    I have been exploring for a little for any high quality articles
    or blog posts in this sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last
    stumbled upon this site. Studying this information So i am glad to express that I have an incredibly
    good uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most unquestionably will make certain to do not overlook this web site and give it a glance regularly.

    manicure at2017-04-07 21:20 Comment
  6. avatar

    I simply want to tell you that I am just newbie to blogging and site-building and really loved your page. Most likely I’m going to bookmark your website . You amazingly come with very good stories. Thanks a bunch for sharing with us your web-site.

    her latest blog at2017-04-17 04:36 Comment
  7. avatar

    Woah! I’m really digging the template/theme of this site. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and visual appeal. I must say you’ve done a amazing job with this. Additionally, the blog loads extremely fast for me on Safari. Outstanding Blog!

    lemongrass oil at2017-04-22 17:25 Comment
  8. avatar

    The URL is needed to figure out the security zone, which is needed to ascertain the condition of the ActiveScripting setting. Completely ad-free, this website is quite easy to navigate and enables you to locate what you need fast. It’s a website that will permit you to really observe plenty of svg files created by very talented people at an affordable price. Everyone can join and add to the undertaking. This facility is known as SVG fonts.

    Marcella Ranck at2017-04-23 03:55 Comment
  9. avatar

    It’s convenient opportunity to get some goals for the longer term. I have looked over this post and if I may possibly, I desire to recommend you couple remarkable tips and advice.

    more info here at2017-04-23 05:48 Comment
  10. avatar

    I really have to notify you that I am new to posting and totally enjoyed your work. Quite possibly I am inclined to save your blog post . You indeed have lovely article content. Acknowledge it for swapping with us all of your domain page

    this post at2017-04-23 09:03 Comment
  11. avatar

    Extraordinarily enlightening specifics that you have said, thanks so much for writing.

    check this site out at2017-04-23 11:47 Comment
  12. avatar

    Incredibly informative advice you’ll have said, thanks so much for adding.

    here are the findings at2017-04-23 23:45 Comment
  13. avatar

    Hi folks there, just turned out to be mindful of your blogging site through The Big G, and have found that it’s seriously informative. I’ll take pleasure in should you keep up this post.

    useful reference at2017-04-24 10:12 Comment
  14. avatar

    I merely have to show you that I am new to putting up a blog and totally enjoyed your article. Quite possibly I am inclined to remember your blog post . You truly have excellent article content. Truly Appreciate it for expressing with us your main blog post

    use this link at2017-04-24 15:22 Comment
  15. avatar

    Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is simply spectacular and i can assume you are an expert on this subject. Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.

    cruises at2017-04-24 21:15 Comment
  16. avatar

    Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! However, how could we communicate?

    medical school at2017-04-24 21:20 Comment
  17. avatar

    It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!

    kitchen remodel at2017-04-24 21:21 Comment
  18. avatar

    Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too fantastic. I actually like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you’re saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is really a great web site.

    business insurance at2017-04-24 21:29 Comment
  19. avatar

    Only 4 stars considering that that seems to be like the pillow best on it stores a considerable amount of warmth in – perhaps my aged cover will get rid of that.

    the my pillow reviews at2017-04-24 23:05 Comment
  20. avatar

    Good – I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs and related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or something, web site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Excellent task.

    Business Product and Supplies at2017-04-25 22:06 Comment
  21. avatar

    Incredibly significant highlights that you have mentioned, thank you so much for setting up.

    try these out at2017-04-26 01:47 Comment
  22. avatar

    I was just seeking this info for a while. After six hours of continuous Googleing, at last I got it in your website. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that do not rank this type of informative websites in top of the list. Generally the top sites are full of garbage.

    Automotive at2017-04-26 11:41 Comment
  23. avatar

    Keep functioning ,impressive job!

    Automotive at2017-04-26 11:44 Comment
  24. avatar

    I like what you guys are up also. Such intelligent work and reporting! Carry on the excellent works guys I¡¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my site :)

    Arts & Entertainment at2017-04-26 11:56 Comment
  25. avatar

    Merely four celebrities considering that that feels like the pillow leading on that stores a considerable amount of heat energy in – hopefully my outdated mattress topper will definitely deal with that.

    where to buy best mattress at2017-04-26 12:03 Comment
  26. avatar

    You made some respectable points there. I appeared on the web for the difficulty and located most people will associate with along with your website.

    John Deere Repair Manuals at2017-04-26 14:48 Comment
  27. avatar

    I got what you intend, thanks for putting up.Woh I am delighted to find this website through google. “Success is dependent on effort.” by Sophocles.

    Business Product and Supplies at2017-04-26 16:45 Comment
  28. avatar

    I just hope to inform you you that I am new to putting up a blog and pretty much valued your page. Very likely I am most likely to store your blog post . You undoubtedly have magnificent article materials. Like it for swapping with us your own site information

    important source at2017-04-26 18:11 Comment
  29. avatar

    It’s perfect day to produce some goals for the possible future. I’ve read this article and if I may just, I wish to recommend you few important tips.

    Home Page at2017-04-26 18:45 Comment
  30. avatar

    I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.

    Computer Virus at2017-04-26 20:31 Comment
  31. avatar

    Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this info. Today bloggers publish only about gossips and internet and this is actually annoying. A good blog with interesting content, this is what I need. Thanks for keeping this website, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

    Dealers at2017-04-26 20:32 Comment
  32. avatar

    Simply a smiling visitant here to share the love (:, btw great style .

    Business at2017-04-27 17:49 Comment
  33. avatar

    Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch since I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch!

    business insurance at2017-04-27 23:41 Comment
  34. avatar

    As I website possessor I believe the content material here is rattling fantastic , appreciate it for your efforts. You should keep it up forever! Good Luck.

    home at2017-04-27 23:41 Comment
  35. avatar

    Useful information. Fortunate me I found your web site accidentally, and I’m surprised why this coincidence didn’t came about in advance! I bookmarked it.

    home improvement loans at2017-04-27 23:43 Comment
  36. avatar

    Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog website? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

    lowe's home improvement at2017-04-27 23:48 Comment
  37. avatar

    I think this is among the most vital information for me. And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

    international flights at2017-04-27 23:54 Comment
  38. avatar

    Great write-up, I’m normal visitor of one’s web site, maintain up the nice operate, and It’s going to be a regular visitor for a long time.

    Business at2017-04-28 02:34 Comment
  39. avatar

    You have mentioned very interesting details ! ps decent web site . “Ask me no questions, and I’ll tell you no fibs.” by Oliver Goldsmith.

    Business at2017-04-28 03:43 Comment
  40. avatar

    Incredibly engaging points you’ll have said, thanks so much for submitting.

    go to my blog at2017-04-28 04:01 Comment
  41. avatar

    I regard something truly interesting about your site so I saved to favorites .

    Travel World at2017-04-28 07:58 Comment
  42. avatar

    The Best place for HTV, Glitter HTV and Cricut Blades!

    Carolee Thull at2017-04-28 08:04 Comment
  43. avatar

    I like this post, enjoyed this one thank you for putting up. “I never let schooling interfere with my education.” by Mark Twain.

    Business at2017-04-28 11:32 Comment
  44. avatar

    Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been running a blog for? you make blogging glance easy. The overall glance of your website is fantastic, as well as the content material!

    Computer & Technology at2017-04-28 12:07 Comment
  45. avatar

    Perfectly indited content, Really enjoyed examining.

    Travel Guides at2017-04-28 13:58 Comment
  46. avatar

    I simply couldn’t leave your web site before suggesting that I actually loved the standard info an individual supply in your guests? Is going to be back incessantly in order to check up on new posts

    Science & Education at2017-04-28 14:01 Comment
  47. avatar

    Hello my loved one! I want to say that this post is amazing, nice written and include almost all significant infos. I¡¦d like to see more posts like this .

    Science & Education at2017-04-28 14:30 Comment
  48. avatar

    Its wonderful as your other blog posts : D, thanks for putting up. “The art of love … is largely the art of persistence.” by Albert Ellis.

    Travel Guides at2017-04-28 16:12 Comment
  49. avatar

    I have not checked in here for a while since I thought it was getting boring, but the last several posts are good quality so I guess I¡¦ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend :)

    Ams at2017-04-28 17:20 Comment
  50. avatar

    If that’s a problem for youngsters, merely put pool noodles under the matched slab on each side till they obtain used to that. Passion this!

    top 10 mattresses at2017-04-28 19:03 Comment
  51. avatar

    Hi there, just started to be familiar with your webpage through Bing, and discovered that it’s quite useful. I will take pleasure in in the event you maintain this idea.

    portland seo expert at2017-04-29 00:05 Comment
  52. avatar

    This is suitable day to get some schemes for the extended term. I have read this posting and if I have the ability to, I want to suggest you handful of appealing advice.

    https://twitter.com/portlandseoex at2017-04-29 02:00 Comment
  53. avatar

    hi!,I love your writing very much! proportion we communicate more approximately your article on AOL? I require an expert on this area to unravel my problem. May be that is you! Taking a look ahead to look you.

    Automotive at2017-04-29 02:14 Comment
  54. avatar

    you are in reality a good webmaster. The website loading velocity is amazing. It sort of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you have done a wonderful job in this matter!

    Dating & Relationship at2017-04-29 02:45 Comment
  55. avatar

    I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I don’t know who you are but definitely you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!

    Find Love at2017-04-30 13:03 Comment
  56. avatar

    As I web-site possessor I believe the content matter here is rattling magnificent , appreciate it for your hard work. You should keep it up forever! Good Luck.

    Buy Art at2017-04-30 13:10 Comment
  57. avatar

    I dugg some of you post as I cogitated they were invaluable handy

    Top Professional Careers at2017-04-30 19:25 Comment
  58. avatar

    Rather than purchasing around, I ordered this accordinged to the assessments and also couldn’t be actually healthier. This is perfectly helped make and actually carries out secure that’s condition.

    this contact form at2017-04-30 22:52 Comment
  59. avatar

    Hello. Great job. I did not expect this. This is a great story. Thanks!

    Top Professional Careers at2017-05-01 04:46 Comment
  60. avatar

    Amazing! With thanks! I for a long time are required to pen on my little online business something of that nature. Do i come with a division of this post to make sure you my website

    simplylinen.co.uk at2017-05-01 05:38 Comment
  61. avatar

    I’m not sure where you are getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic information I was looking for this info for my mission.

    Exploration Careers Information at2017-05-01 08:04 Comment
  62. avatar

    I really appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You’ve made my day! Thank you again!

    Autos Europe at2017-05-01 12:58 Comment